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phytophthora

Avocado and Phytophthora Cinnamomi

Avocado and “Phytophthora Cinnamomi”

Phytophthora cinnamomi is a soil-born water mould that produces an infection which causes a condition in plants called root rot dieback. The plant pathogen is one of the world’s most invasive species and is present in over 70 countries around the world.

In addition to damage to native woodlands, P. cinnamomi can also infect fruit trees, nut trees and other ornamental plants. Research has shown that P. cinnamomi can infect club mosses, ferns, cycads, conifers, cord rushes, grasses, lilies and a large number of species from many dicotyledonous families. This is such a remarkable range for a plant pathogen and highlights the effectiveness of P. cinnamomi as an aggressive primary pathogen. This species has been named among the 100 of the “World’s Worst” invaders.

Impact on avocado farming

Phytophthora cinnamomi is the leading cause of damage to avocado trees, and is commonly known as “root rot” amongst avocado farmers. Since the 1940s various breeds of root-rot resistant avocados have been developed to minimize tree damage. Damaged trees generally die or become unproductive within three to five years. A 1960 study of the Fallbrook, California area correlated higher levels of avocado root rot to soils with poorer drainage and greater clay content.

Sidewinder Precision Tree Injectors holds a very good reputation throughout Avocado growers around the world. It is well known as one of the most effective methods to reduce or even eliminate Phytophthora cinnamomi!

Please refer to the flow chart on our “Injection Process” page which outlines the majority of the facts as to why the SPT Injectors reputation continues to grow!

Jemella in Pandanus

Jemella in Pandanus

Jemella in Pandanus

Jemella in Pandanus jemella2 jemella3 jemella4 jemella5

Background

By the mid 1990’s a small fatid Jammella australiae, a native of Northern Australia was devestating Pandanus Palms along the Southern Coast of Queensland.
Surveys in Noosa National Park of 3200 palms showed a high correlation between fatid numbers and tree health with up to 500,000 on a single tree. By 1996 25% of palms where dead and 66% in poor health, worst of all, no plants under seven years old could be found.
Chemical pesticide trials with Bayer Imidacloprid Insecticide directly injected into branches with a Sidewinder Injector where initiated and under the supervision of Qld. DPI
As can be seen for the accompanying images the high profile public places where most of the palms are located precludes the use of a spray or ground injection delivery systems. Some palms are growing from fissures in rocky shore lines and cliff faces.
Bayer Imidacloprid proved very effective, trial trees showed no sign of reinfestation after 16 months while surrounding control trees had all died.
The trial proved that the insecticide could be applied inlocations of very high environmental sensitivity with an almost total acceptance by the general public.
All trees in the Noosa National Park were injected and the process has become standard treatment in private and public trees along that part of the Australian Coast.

Acknowledgment.
Material used in this article taken from report prepared by Dr. Dan Smith Senior Entomologist QDPI and N. Smith Entomologist QDEnv.

When injecting trees in public places it is good practice to seal the holes with the Sidewinder plastic plugs.

Warning — Read the pesticide manufacturers label before using with this injector system. It is an offence to use product for a purpose or in a manor other than as stated on that label, unless there is in place a current 24/c permit for the purpose proposed.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE THIS OR ANY SIDEWINDER INJECTORS TO BE USED WITH UNBUFFERED PHOSPHOROUS OR PHOSPHORIC ACID PRODUCTS SUCH AS 0-60-0 AS IT COULD CAUSE SUDDEN FAILURE OF SOME INJECTOR PARTS AND PLACE THE OPERATOR AT RISK OF SERIOUS INJURY.

Psyllids in Eucalypts

Psyllids in Eucalypts

Psyllids in Eucalypts

Psyllids in Eucalypts psyllids2 psyllids3 psyllids4 psyllids5

The problem sap sucking Psyllid causing defoliation of Eucalypts has been increasing in Australia for many years.

The Red gum lerp psyllid (Glycaspis brimblecombei) was found in Los Angeles in 1998 and has spread throughout much of California.

This insect from Australia also is found in Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, and Mexico on a variety of eucalyptus species.

Red gum lerp psyllid infests over two dozen Eucalyptus species. In California this psyllid prefers river red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), flooded gum (E. rudis), and forest red gum (E. tereticornis). Certain Eucalyptus species are avoided or are not heavily infested by this psyllid

Eucalyptus trees in California are attacked by at least 14 other introduced insects, including the bluegum psyllid (Ctenarytaina eucalypti), eucalyptus longhorned borers (Phoracantha recurva and P. semipunctata), and eucalyptus snout beetle or gumtree weevil (Gonipterus scutellatus), which are now under good biological control.

It has proven beneficial to learn how management efforts may affect the other introduced eucalyptus pests before taking any control actions. In particular, consult the Pest Notes on eucalyptus longhorned borers, eucalyptus tortoise beetle, and psyllids.

Years of research into biological control via introduction of predatory wasps from Australia at UC Berkeley have proved ineffective.

Current Californian Chemical Control

Chemicals that are currently registered in California for control of psyllids using two different methods of application, ie via ground injection and trunk injection via prepackaged capsules.

Comparisons between both these delivery systems with Sidewinder’s Injection Technique not only shows a difference in application efficiency, but a more cost effective solution using the Sidewinder.

A trial carried out in Australia by the Keith Tumbull Research Institute 1997/98 verifying the effectiveness of Bayer Imidacloprid against the carriers of “DED” in elm trees via ground injection, trunk injected with capsules and trunk injected with Sidewinder showed all three systems have good control.

 

Trunk Drenching

Trunk Drenching

Trunk Drenching

PHYTOPHTHORA CONTROL IN YOUNG AVOCADOS

Successful replanting of avocados in phytophthora infected orchards can be difficult at best and at worst up to a 100 % failure rate.

At Sidewinder we have found the following very successful when used on trees from planting stage up till their butts are large enough to inject.
DRENCHING – ONCE EVERY TWO MONTHS

Each plant drenched over whole canopy and rot zone  with 20 litres of water mixed with 50ml. of 40 % concentrate pH. 7.2 potassium phosphonate.

Solutions should be applied via a “soft” spray, wetting all leaves and trunk and the root zone.

Images below are of a hass planted in our backyard March 00, at time it had literally no roots, all were black with phytophthora and only 6 leaves, we did it as a challenge and I think we won.

29 July 2000
29 July 2000
8 February 2001
8 February 2001

Warning — Read the pesticide manufacturers label before using with this injector system. It is an offence to use product for a purpose or in a manor other than as stated on that label, unless there is in place a current 24/c permit for the purpose proposed.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE THIS OR ANY SIDEWINDER INJECTORS TO BE USED WITH UNBUFFERED PHOSPHOROUS OR PHOSPHORIC ACID PRODUCTS SUCH AS 0-60-0 AS IT COULD CAUSE SUDDEN FAILURE OF SOME INJECTOR PARTS AND PLACE THE OPERATOR AT RISK OF SERIOUS INJURY.

Feral Tree Control

Feral Tree Control

 

 

Feral Tree Control

feral1Who is this man?

He’s a highly trained professional.

He’s a lean, mean, tree killing machine.

He’s a superb athlete, able to go all day.

He can place that axe within mm’s.

He works just like a thrashing machine.

Does he sound like your average county / municipal weed control officer?

Sounds more like an endangered species!

Sidewinder never was and never will be a threat to this man.

However if your looking for what’s considered by many as the safest  method of herbicide delivery, both from an environmental and work place practice view, please continue.

  • feral2Q.D.N.R. trial work done treating Schinus terebinthifolius along Oxley Creek an inner city waterway Brisbane, Aust. The shinus were displacing native mangroves eucalypts etc, site was a wildlife and fish breading area with a high public presence.
    Schinus mortality 100% collateral damage zero.
  • feral3Young Greencorp Volunteer being Sidewinder trained on elm removal project Mary River, Gympie, Queensland.
  • feral4Recommended Dose Rates Sidewinder
    Excellent results will be achieved by applying the same amount of active per injection as the herbicide manufactures “cut and swab” or “stem injection” recommendation, then diluting this with water to give a total of a 5 ml dose, one swing on the pump handle. Sidewinder works better by placing +90% of the shot precisely within the conductive xylem zone.
  • feral5Feral tree removal project part funded by WWF for Nature and local council on the banks of the North Maroochy River, Yandina, Queensland, sensitive location with platypus occupying adjacent waterholes.
  • feral6Multi stemmed camphor laurel being given a lethal dose of herbicide, all stems must be injected separately.
    Don’t forget if your working in an environmentally sensitive area or public places use the patented Sidewinder injection site sealing plugs, good PR & insurance.

Warning — Read the pesticide manufacturers label before using with this injector system. It is an offence to use product for a purpose or in a manor other than as stated on that label, unless there is in place a current 24/c permit for the purpose proposed.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE THIS OR ANY SIDEWINDER INJECTORS TO BE USED WITH UNBUFFERED PHOSPHOROUS OR PHOSPHORIC ACID PRODUCTS SUCH AS 0-60-0 AS IT COULD CAUSE SUDDEN FAILURE OF SOME INJECTOR PARTS AND PLACE THE OPERATOR AT RISK OF SERIOUS INJURY.

Where to Inject

Where to Inject

Where to Inject

Where to injectSidewinder does not recommend continual injection into the lower trunk of the tree regardless of the injection method used, due to the ongoing accumulation of damaged tissue.

When a tree is large enough it should be injected between one and two metres [green lines] above ground level, and preferably beyond the point [ blue lines] where at some future date it will be pruned, thereby removing most od the scarred tissue at that time.

NOTE
Injected phosphorates first travel up to the leaves via the active xylem, (sap wood) before moving down the roots.

Warning — Read the pesticide manufacturers label before using with this injector system. It is an offence to use product for a purpose or in a manor other than as stated on that label, unless there is in place a current 24/c permit for the purpose proposed.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE THIS OR ANY SIDEWINDER INJECTORS TO BE USED WITH UNBUFFERED PHOSPHOROUS OR PHOSPHORIC ACID PRODUCTS SUCH AS 0-60-0 AS IT COULD CAUSE SUDDEN FAILURE OF SOME INJECTOR PARTS AND PLACE THE OPERATOR AT RISK OF SERIOUS INJURY.

Forest Trees

Forest Trees

Forest Trees

Forest trees forest2 forest3 forest4 forest5

We all have some childhood memories that seem to be revisited regularly, one of the writer’s is from just after WW2 of the clattering rumble of fully laded brewery trucks, with iron wheels, solid rubber tyres, traversing the inner city streets of Sydney, Australia.

The source of the noise was not just the ancient beer trucks for these streets were paved with brick sized blocks of that magnificent hardwood timber  Eucalyptus marginata commonly know as Jarrah.

Today you would have difficulty finding many E. marginate in their native rangeland that don’t resemble the images opposite and at the bottom of this page, the culprit being Phytophthora Cinnimomi root rot fungus.

P. Cinnimomi is said to be effecting some 2000 out of 6000 native plant species in Western Australia with some small localised sub species under threat of extinction.

Image on left is of a Californian Native Oak being injected with potassium phosphonate during trials by the  SOD Research Team.

SOD or Sudden Oak Death is a recent, 1995, and growing problem in native oaks and other plants in California, the cause has recently been identified as the pathogenic fungi, Phytophthora romorum.

The disease is thought to be spread by the movement of infected wood soil and rainwater.

For an up to date review of all aspects of  current  research, action plans, affected and host plants see,

http://cemarin.ucdavis.edu.edu/index2.html

Coconut Palms

Urban as well as plantation coconut palms are susceptible to phytophthora attack, image on left shows highly valued resort palms in the Hawaiian Islands being treated by phosphonate injection.

Treatment of Phytophthora cinnimomi in E marginata

Fortunately  P. cinnimomi can be controlled in E. marginata, injection of potassium phosphonate gives from 4 to 6 years protection, unfortunately the scale of the problem is so large in native habitats, financial constraints mean only trees in high profile places are treated.

When injecting trees in public places it is good practice to seal the holes with the Sidewinder plastic plugs.

Warning — Read the pesticide manufacturers label before using with this injector system. It is an offence to use product for a purpose or in a manor other than as stated on that label, unless there is in place a current 24/c permit for the purpose proposed.

UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE THIS OR ANY SIDEWINDER INJECTORS TO BE USED WITH UNBUFFERED PHOSPHOROUS OR PHOSPHORIC ACID PRODUCTS SUCH AS 0-60-0 AS IT COULD CAUSE SUDDEN FAILURE OF SOME INJECTOR PARTS AND PLACE THE OPERATOR AT RISK OF SERIOUS INJURY.

Patented Combination Drill / Injector

Patented Combination Drill Injector

Patented Combination Drill Injector

Patented Combination Drill Injector drillinject2 drillinject4 drillinject3

All Sidewinder tree injectors feature our patented combination of drill and rotating injector nozzle. This one piece tool in combination with detachable drill bit provides what is probably the fastest and most cost effective method of delivering injectable chemicals directly into the critical zone of the trees active xylem.

Combined with Sidewinder purpose built dosing pumps, our injection systems provide precise control of both dose volume and injection pressure.

Drill/Injectors supplied with the compressed air kits are fitted with a 12 volt switch for remote operation of the dosing pump.

Backpack Tree Injector

Backpack Tree Injector

Backpack Tree Injector

Backpack Tree Injector backtree2 backtree3 backtree4 backtree5 backtree6

The backpack battery powered drill / injector is the most widely used of our tree injection systems, nor in use in some 18 countries world wide.
Examples of uses shown above.

P1– Avocado injection of phosphorate in California.
P2–Coconut injection of phosphorate in Hawaii.
P3–Californian Native Oaks injected to control phytopthora.
P4–Mango tree injection Thailand.
P5– Pandanus Palm injection with insecticide Noosa Beach Australia.
P6–Avocado tree injection Peru.

The backpack features light weight fiberglass shell houses, chemical injection pump, sealed 12 volt battery that power drill, chemical container. Padded and comfortable four way adjustable military style harness , detachable pump handle. Pump output 5 ml. per swing of the handle.

airspring2All backpack tree injectors features a heavy duty 12 volt Makita Drill coupled to our Mk 2 injector nozzle assembly incorporating detachable drill bit and holder, pressure gauge to allow control of injection pressure
All metal parts made of stainless steel seals and bushes from teflon and viton, to allow the widest possible chemical compatibility.

Herbicide Backpack Tree Injector

Herbicide Backpack Tree Injector

Herbicide Backpack Tree Injector

Herbicide Backpack Tree Injector
Camphor Laurel Removal Project
North Maroochy River,
Qld. Australia
Broad Leaved Pepper Tree Inj. Trials Oxley Creek, Brisbane Qld. Australia
Broad Leaved Pepper Tree Inj. Trials
Oxley Creek, Brisbane
Qld. Australia

Basically the same as the standard backpack tree injector, featuring the same light weight fiberglass shell, 12 volt drill/injector assembly, adjustable military style harness batteries and battery charger.

Additional to the above is a five metre power cable allowing operation by either one or two persons a particularly useful feature when operating on difficult terrain or when working on trees that branch low to the ground thereby making it difficult to get close to the tree wearing the backpack.

Principle benefits of the herbicide tree injector,

1–Suitable for use where spray application not appropriate.
2–Suitable for use by voluntary workers with minimum training.
3–Significantly reduced herbicide usage.
4–Ability to be used in environmentally sensitive locations such as public places, national parks and stream banks.
5–Suitable for use in windy or even rainy weather.
6–Almost zero risk of collateral damage.

Two person operation, [normally in more difficult locations].
Two person operation, [normally in more difficult locations].
Greencorp Volunteer demonstrating Sidewinder
Greencorp Volunteer demonstrating Sidewinder